- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- OECD 202: Daphnia sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test
- OECD 235: Chironomus sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 218/219: Sediment-Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment/Spiked Water
- OECD 233: Sediment-Water Chironomid Life-Cycle Toxicity Test Using Spiked Water or Spiked Sediment
- OECD 225: Sediment-water Lumbriculus Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment
- OECD 242: Potamopyrgus antipodarum Reproduction Test
- OECD 243: Lymnea stagnalis Reproduction Test
- OECD 203: Fish, Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 215: Fish Juvenile Growth Study
- OECD 212: Fish, Short-term Toxicity Test on Embryo and Sac-fry Stages
- OECD 231: The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay
- OECD 236: Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 210: Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test
- OECD 229 Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay and OECD 230 21-day Fish Assay
- OECD 240 Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)
- OECD 241: Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay
- OPPTS 850.1500: Fish Life Cycle Toxicity Test
- OÈCD 234 Fish sexual development test
- Storage Stability Studies
- OPPTS 830.6302, OPPTS 830.6303,and OPPTS 830.6304: Physical State, Colour and Odor at 20 °C and at 101.3 kPa
- EU A.1: Melting temperature/range
- EU A.2: Boiling temperature
- EU A.3: Relative density (liquids and solids)
- EU A.4: Vapour pressure
- EU A.5: Surface tension
- EU A.9: Flashpoint
- EU A.10: Flammability (solids)
- EU A.12: Flammability (contact with water)
- EU A.13: Pyrophoric properties of solids and liquids
- EU A.16: Relative self-ignition temperature for solids
- EU A.17: Oxidising properties
- OECD 114: Viscosity of Liquids
- Environmental Fate
- Terrestrial Ecotoxicology
- Non-target arthropod testing with the parasitic wasp (Aphidius rhopalosiphi)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the ladybird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory bug (Orius laevigatus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory mite (Typhlodromus pyri)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the rove beetle (Aleochara bilineata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the carabid beetle (Poecilus cupreus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the wolf spider (Pardosa spec.)
- OECD 213/214: Honey bees, Acute Oral and Acute Contact Toxicity Test
- Honeybee: Chronic Feeding Tests
- OECD 237: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test, Single Exposure
- Effects on Honey Bee Brood (Apis mellifera) - Brood Feeding Test -
- OECD Draft TG: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test, Repeated Exposure
- OECD 75: Honey Bee Brood Test under Semi-field conditions
- EPPO 170: Honey Bee Field Study – do plant protection products effect honey bee colonies?
- Acute Oral and Contact Toxicity to the Bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L.
- Ecological Modelling
- Quality Assurance
- Testing of Potential Endocrine Disruptors
- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
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Predatory Mite Field Study (IOBC 2000)
Applications of plant protection products should not unacceptably affect non target arthropod populations like predatory mites. Thyphlodromus pyri is a common and important leaf dwelling mite and one of the most important predators of spider mites in vineyards and orchards. A field study on predatory mite populations under the real conditions of agricultural practice (GAP) is indicated if laboratory studies show considerably high effects on mortality and reproduction of T. pyri. It allows determining short and long term effects on predatory mite populations like reduction, persistence and recovery potential.
according to Blümel et al. 2000
Predatory mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae), e.g. Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten, living in natural populations, all mobile predatory mite stages are assessed.
Design of the Test field
Genuine vineyard and orchard unities under real conditions of agricultural practice are used as test sites. Beside the water treated control and the test item treatment a toxic reference item is applied to proof the sensitivity of the test system. Each treatment group comprises 5 replicates (15 grape-vines per plot or 8 slender spindle bush trees).
Application of the Test Substances
The application is done with a calibrated back pack sprayer. Time and frequency of the applications follow the intended use of the product. A calibrated volumetric flow instrument gives the exact amount of the actual application.
Direct spraying, contact to residues, uptake of contaminated food
Leaves (or buds) are removed randomly from each plot, placed in a labelled bucket and processed in the laboratory. Further procession follows the leaching-method (Boller 1984): Each bucket is filled with tap water adding a small amount of detergence to lower the surface tension of the added water; all leaf of one plot are individually washed with tap water; the washing water of the respective container is poured through a system of several sieves. The retained mites are counted under a binocular. Two subsamples at the beginning and end of the study are identified to species level to determine the species composition of the predatory mite population.
Course of the study
A pre-sampling is done within five days before the first test item application to ensure sufficient abundance and homogeneity of the mite populations. If there are several application dates interim sampling has to be performed. Two post-application sampling are carried out one and four weeks after the last application. The mite samplings are continued in 4 week intervals as long as the reduction of the test item relative to the control is higher than 50%.
Duration: 2 to 12 months depending on recovery of mite population
The development of mite population densities is monitored over the complete experimental period until recovery of the test item treatment is observed. Recovery is achieved when the reduction of the predatory mite density in the test item treatement relative to control is below 50%.
Guidelines and Literature
- Blümel et al., 2000: Guidance document to detect side effects of plant protection products on predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) under field conditions: vineyards and orchards. In: Candolfi et al. (eds.) 2000: Guidelines to evaluate side-effects of plant protection products to non-target arthropods. IOBC/WPRS, Gent, pp 121-143.
- Boller E. 1984: Eine einfache Ausschwemm-Methode zur schnellen Erfassung von Raubmilben, Thrips und anderen Kleinarthropoden im Weinbau. Schweiz. Zeitschrift für Obst- und Weinbau 120: 16 -17.