- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- OECD 202: Daphnia sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test
- OECD 235: Chironomus sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 218/219: Sediment-Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment/Spiked Water
- OECD 233: Sediment-Water Chironomid Life-Cycle Toxicity Test Using Spiked Water or Spiked Sediment
- OECD 225: Sediment-water Lumbriculus Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment
- OECD 242: Potamopyrgus antipodarum Reproduction Test
- OECD 243: Lymnea stagnalis Reproduction Test
- OECD 203: Fish, Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 215: Fish Juvenile Growth Study
- OECD 212: Fish, Short-term Toxicity Test on Embryo and Sac-fry Stages
- OECD 231: The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay
- OECD 236: Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 210: Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test
- OECD 229 Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay and OECD 230 21-day Fish Assay
- OECD 240 Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)
- OECD 241: Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay
- OPPTS 850.1500: Fish Life Cycle Toxicity Test
- OÈCD 234 Fish sexual development test
- Storage Stability Studies
- OPPTS 830.6302, OPPTS 830.6303,and OPPTS 830.6304: Physical State, Colour and Odor at 20 °C and at 101.3 kPa
- EU A.1: Melting temperature/range
- EU A.2: Boiling temperature
- EU A.3: Relative density (liquids and solids)
- EU A.4: Vapour pressure
- EU A.5: Surface tension
- EU A.9: Flashpoint
- EU A.10: Flammability (solids)
- EU A.12: Flammability (contact with water)
- EU A.13: Pyrophoric properties of solids and liquids
- EU A.16: Relative self-ignition temperature for solids
- EU A.17: Oxidising properties
- OECD 114: Viscosity of Liquids
- Environmental Fate
- Terrestrial Ecotoxicology
- Non-target arthropod testing with the parasitic wasp (Aphidius rhopalosiphi)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the ladybird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory bug (Orius laevigatus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory mite (Typhlodromus pyri)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the rove beetle (Aleochara bilineata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the carabid beetle (Poecilus cupreus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the wolf spider (Pardosa spec.)
- OECD 213/214: Honey bees, Acute Oral and Acute Contact Toxicity Test
- OECD 245: Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.), Chronic Oral Toxicity Test (10-Day Feeding)
- OECD 237: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test, Single Exposure
- OECD 239: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test
- EPPO 170: Honey Bee Field Study – do plant protection products effect honey bee colonies?
- Oomen et al. 1992: Honey Bee Brood Feeding Study
- OECD 75: Honey Bee Brood Test under Semi-field Conditions in Tunnels
- OECD 246/247 Acute Oral and Contact Toxicity to the Bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L.
- Solitary Bee Acute Contact Toxicity Study in the Laboratory (Osmia sp.) Solitary Bee Acute Oral Toxicity Study in the Laboratory (Osmia sp.) (protocols for ringtests with solitary bees recommended by the non-Apis working group)
- SANTE/11956/2016 rev.9 Residue trials for MRL setting in honey
- OECD 208: Terrestrial Plant Test - Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test
- OECD 227: Terrestrial Plant Test - Vegetative Vigour Test
- OCSPP 850.4100: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth
- OCSPP 850.4150: Vegetative Vigor
- EPPO PP 1/207(2): Efficacy evaluation of plant protection products, Effects on succeeding crops
- Ecological Modelling
- Quality Assurance
- Testing of Potential Endocrine Disruptors
- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
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OECD 218/219: Sediment-Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment/Spiked Water
Long-term studies with Chironimus species are required for the risk assessment of e.g. insect growth regulators and for active substances which absorb to and persist in sediments and additionally have a potential toxicity to invertebrates based on the results of previous acute studies.
The chronic Chironomus studies are performed following two different exposure scenarios:
- spiking of the water column to simulate a pesticide spray drift (OECD 219)
- spiking of the sediment to address risks from exposure to contaminated sediment, particularly if there is an accumulation of the compound in the sediment over time (OECD 218)
Chironomus species occur in aquatic habitats in high abundance and diversity. Larvae of these midges are typical sediment dwellers and an important prey for fish, the adults also for birds. Chironomus riparius is bred in a laboratory culture. Freshly laid egg masses are taken from the breeding culture 4 to 5 days before test start.
Course of the test
First instar larvae of Chironomus riparius are exposed to the test item for 28 days to assess the impact on full maturation of the larvae to adult midges. 20 first instar chironomid larvae per test beaker with at least 4 replicates (6 for the control) per test item concentration are exposed in a sediment-water system.
For the spiked water test design larvae are placed into the test beakers 24 hours before application of the test substance.
In case of the spiked sediment design, the sediment is spiked first and after a stabilisation period of 48 hours the larvae are introduced.
The concentrations of the test substance in the pore water, the overlying water, and the sediment are analysed at test start and test end. Additional analytical measurements during the test are possible if required. To confirm the sensitivity of the test system a toxic reference is tested once per year.
LOEC, NOEC, EC50 (EC20, EC10) for the total number of adults emerged (emergence rate) and the time to emergence (development rate). During the emergence period daily counts are performed and the sex of the adults is determined. The maximum exposure duration is 28 days.
Guidelines and literature
- OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals 218: "Sediment-Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment"
- OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals 219: "Sediment-Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Water"