- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- OECD 202: Daphnia sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test
- OECD 235: Chironomus sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 218/219: Sediment-Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment/Spiked Water
- OECD 233: Sediment-Water Chironomid Life-Cycle Toxicity Test Using Spiked Water or Spiked Sediment
- OECD 225: Sediment-water Lumbriculus Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment
- OECD 242: Potamopyrgus antipodarum Reproduction Test
- OECD 243: Lymnaea stagnalis Reproduction Test
- OECD 203: Fish, Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 215: Fish Juvenile Growth Study
- OECD 212: Fish, Short-term Toxicity Test on Embryo and Sac-fry Stages
- OECD 231: The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay
- OECD 236: Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 210: Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test
- OECD 229 Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay and OECD 230 21-day Fish Assay
- OECD 240 Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)
- OECD 248: Xenopus Eleutheroembryonic Thyroid Assay
- OPPTS 850.1500: Fish Life Cycle Toxicity Test
- OÈCD 234 Fish sexual development test
- Storage Stability Studies
- OPPTS 830.6302, OPPTS 830.6303,and OPPTS 830.6304: Physical State, Colour and Odor at 20 °C and at 101.3 kPa
- EU A.1: Melting temperature/range
- EU A.2: Boiling temperature
- EU A.3: Relative density (liquids and solids)
- EU A.4: Vapour pressure
- EU A.5: Surface tension
- EU A.9: Flashpoint
- EU A.10: Flammability (solids)
- EU A.12: Flammability (contact with water)
- EU A.13: Pyrophoric properties of solids and liquids
- EU A.16: Relative self-ignition temperature for solids
- EU A.17: Oxidising properties
- OECD 114: Viscosity of Liquids
- Environmental Fate
- Terrestrial Ecotoxicology
- Non-target arthropod testing with the parasitic wasp (Aphidius rhopalosiphi)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the ladybird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory bug (Orius laevigatus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory mite (Typhlodromus pyri)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the rove beetle (Aleochara bilineata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the carabid beetle (Poecilus cupreus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the wolf spider (Pardosa spec.)
- OECD 213/214: Honey bees, Acute Oral and Acute Contact Toxicity Test
- OECD 245: Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.), Chronic Oral Toxicity Test (10-Day Feeding)
- OECD 237: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test, Single Exposure
- OECD 239: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test
- EPPO 170: Honey Bee Field Study – do plant protection products effect honey bee colonies?
- Oomen et al. 1992: Honey Bee Brood Feeding Study
- OECD 75: Honey Bee Brood Test under Semi-field Conditions in Tunnels
- OECD 246/247 Acute Oral and Contact Toxicity to the Bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L.
- Solitary Bee Acute Contact Toxicity Study in the Laboratory (Osmia sp.) Solitary Bee Acute Oral Toxicity Study in the Laboratory (Osmia sp.) (protocols for ringtests with solitary bees recommended by the non-Apis working group)
- SANTE/11956/2016 rev.9 Residue trials for MRL setting in honey
- OECD 208: Terrestrial Plant Test - Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test
- OECD 227: Terrestrial Plant Test - Vegetative Vigour Test
- OCSPP 850.4100: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth
- OCSPP 850.4150: Vegetative Vigor
- EPPO PP 1/207(2): Efficacy evaluation of plant protection products, Effects on succeeding crops
- Ecological Modelling
- Quality Assurance
- Testing of Potential Endocrine Disruptors
- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- Sabrina Westphal
- Dr. Melanie Lichtenberger
- Dr. Maria Meinerling
- Frauke Ewert
- Frank Ströhle
- Dr. Mercedes Dragovits
- Christine Rushby
- Feride Karabiyik
- Dr. Saúl Molina-Herrera
- Christiane Rutschmann-Fröhlich
- Thomas Deierling
- Jan Schostag
- Dr. Benoit Goussen
- Sabine Schwientek
- Dr. Patrick Riefer
- Dr. Anja Meister-Werner
- Martina Schmalhorst
- Who we are
- Company history
- Our Certificates
OECD 316: Phototransformation of Chemicals in Water – Direct Photolysis
Direct photolysis involves the transformation of a chemical resulting from direct absorption of a solar photon. Direct photolysis can be an important dissipation pathway for a chemical that exhibits significant light absorption above 290 nm cut-off of the solar irradiation at the earth´s surface. The purpose of this test is to investigate the potential effects of solar irradiation on the test substance in water. Direct photolysis rate, half-life and quantum yield will be determined for the test item. The transformation product pattern and mass balance can be investigated with the usage of 14C-labelled test item.
Typically, the test will be carried out with 14C-labelled test item. As light source a combination of xenon lamp and optical filters to simulate natural sunlight in the region of 290 to 800 nm will be used. Incubation in sterilised (buffered) aqueous solution will be accomplished at a temperature of 25°C. The test will be conducted using multiple flask design. Based on the phase of the study either hermetically closed quartz glass cuvettes or custom-made incubation flasks connected to a flow-through system will be used. In the latter case a moderate stream of air will be used as carrier gas to collect CO2 and other volatiles in distinct traps consisting of different solutions.
Course of the test
One test substance concentration will be used for the test. To distinguish between photochemical and other reactions (e.g. hydrolysis) additional samples will be incubated in the dark.
The maximum study duration will not exceed the equivalent of 30 days of sunlight exposure during an appropriate season and latitude (e.g. 14 days of artificial irradiation). Apart from samples taken directly after application, at least 6 sampling time points will be included. Time intervals will be chosen in such a way that the pattern of decline of the test substance and possible transformation products can be established.
Tier 1 (Theoretical screen):
The maximum possible direct photolysis rate constant and the corresponding half-life for the test substance will be estimated based on the absorption spectrum of the test substance.
Tier 2 (Degradation rate):
The decline in the concentration of the test substance and the corresponding direct photolysis rate constant will be determined (Tier 2-1). According to these results, if further tests are necessary, an actinometer will be developed to calculate the quantum yield of the test substance(Tier 2-2).
Tier 3 (Mass balance and transformation products):
Bass balancing and transformation product pattern will be determined for the test substance. Degradation kinetics will also be followed for any major transformation product, if possible.
Analysis of the test substance and transformation products
In case of the 14C-labelled test substance the analytical methods will base on LSC and HPLC coupled with UV and radio detection. LC-MS/MS can be carried out as additional analytical method. The analytical method and sample preparation will be established to allow a limit of quantification of ≤ 5% of the applied radioactivity.
Special test setup
- Non-labelled test substance can also be used for the test to investigate the degradation kinetics (e.g. DT50) of the test substance.
- Calculations of half-lives or DT50 and DT90 values
- Transformation product pattern including characterisation/ identification of major products.
Guidelines and Literature
- OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals, No. 316, "Phototransformation of Chemicals in Water – Direct Photolysis"; adopted October 3, 2008.
- Leifer A. The Kinetics of Environmental Aquatic Photochemistry. Theory and Practice. ACS Professional Reference Book, 1998