- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- OECD 202: Daphnia sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test
- OECD 235: Chironomus sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 218/219: Sediment-Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment/Spiked Water
- OECD 233: Sediment-Water Chironomid Life-Cycle Toxicity Test Using Spiked Water or Spiked Sediment
- OECD 225: Sediment-water Lumbriculus Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment
- OECD 242: Potamopyrgus antipodarum Reproduction Test
- OECD 243: Lymnaea stagnalis Reproduction Test
- OECD 203: Fish, Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 215: Fish Juvenile Growth Study
- OECD 212: Fish, Short-term Toxicity Test on Embryo and Sac-fry Stages
- OECD 231: The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay
- OECD 236: Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 210: Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test
- OECD 229 Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay and OECD 230 21-day Fish Assay
- OECD 240 Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)
- OECD 248: Xenopus Eleutheroembryo Thyroid Assay
- OPPTS 850.1500: Fish Life Cycle Toxicity Test
- OÈCD 234 Fish sexual development test
- Storage Stability Studies
- OPPTS 830.6302, OPPTS 830.6303,and OPPTS 830.6304: Physical State, Colour and Odor at 20 °C and at 101.3 kPa
- EU A.1: Melting temperature/range
- EU A.2: Boiling temperature
- EU A.3: Relative density (liquids and solids)
- EU A.4: Vapour pressure
- EU A.5: Surface tension
- EU A.9: Flashpoint
- EU A.10: Flammability (solids)
- EU A.12: Flammability (contact with water)
- EU A.13: Pyrophoric properties of solids and liquids
- EU A.16: Relative self-ignition temperature for solids
- EU A.17: Oxidising properties
- OECD 114: Viscosity of Liquids
- Environmental Fate
- Terrestrial Ecotoxicology
- Non-target arthropod testing with the parasitic wasp (Aphidius rhopalosiphi)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the ladybird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory bug (Orius laevigatus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory mite (Typhlodromus pyri)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the rove beetle (Aleochara bilineata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the carabid beetle (Poecilus cupreus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the wolf spider (Pardosa spec.)
- OECD 213/214: Honey bees, Acute Oral and Acute Contact Toxicity Test
- OECD 245: Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.), Chronic Oral Toxicity Test (10-Day Feeding)
- OECD 237: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test, Single Exposure
- OECD 239: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test
- EPPO 170: Honey Bee Field Study – do plant protection products effect honey bee colonies?
- Oomen et al. 1992: Honey Bee Brood Feeding Study
- OECD 75: Honey Bee Brood Test under Semi-field Conditions in Tunnels
- OECD 246/247 Acute Oral and Contact Toxicity to the Bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L.
- Solitary Bee Acute Contact Toxicity Study in the Laboratory (Osmia sp.) Solitary Bee Acute Oral Toxicity Study in the Laboratory (Osmia sp.) (protocols for ringtests with solitary bees recommended by the non-Apis working group)
- SANTE/11956/2016 rev.9 Residue trials for MRL setting in honey
- OECD 208: Terrestrial Plant Test - Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test
- OECD 227: Terrestrial Plant Test - Vegetative Vigour Test
- OCSPP 850.4100: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth
- OCSPP 850.4150: Vegetative Vigor
- EPPO PP 1/207(2): Efficacy evaluation of plant protection products, Effects on succeeding crops
- Ecological Modelling
- Quality Assurance
- Testing of Potential Endocrine Disruptors
- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- Sabrina Westphal
- Dr. Melanie Lichtenberger
- Dr. Maria Meinerling
- Frauke Ewert
- Frank Ströhle
- Dr. Mercedes Dragovits
- Christine Rushby
- Feride Karabiyik
- Dr. Saúl Molina-Herrera
- Christiane Rutschmann-Fröhlich
- Thomas Deierling
- Jan Schostag
- Dr. Benoit Goussen
- Sabine Schwientek
- Dr. Patrick Riefer
- Dr. Anja Meister-Werner
- Martina Schmalhorst
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EU A.4: Vapour pressure
The vapour pressure gives an indication of the probability of the phase transitions liquid/gas and solid/gas. Vapour pressure data is required as a pre-requisite for animal as well as environmental studies.
The purpose of the study is to determine the vapour pressure of the test item using the isothermal thermogravimetrical effusion method. The evaporation rates of the test item at elevated temperatures and ambient pressure are determined by monitoring the weight loss. This method is suitable for substances with vapour pressures as low as 10-10 Pa (10-12mbar) and with purity as close as possible to 100% to avoid the misinterpretation of measured weight losses.
It is useful to have preliminary information on the melting point/melting range of the substance before performing these tests.
(The study does not need to be conducted if the melting point is above 300 °C. If the melting point is between 200 °C and 300 °C, a limit value based on measurement or a recognised calculation method is sufficient. Vapour pressure testing is also not required for chemicals with a standard boiling point of <30°C, as these substances will have vapour pressures above the limit of measurement (i.e. 105 Pa)).
Course of the test
Apparatus – Q50 thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA)
Test Conditions - The experiments will be performed under a flow of nitrogen and at atmospheric pressure.
The evaporation rates VT of the test item at elevated temperatures and ambient pressure is determined by measuring the weight loss at defined temperatures over a period of time. The vapour pressure pT is calculated from the evaporation rates by using a linear relationship between the logarithm of the vapour pressure and the logarithm of the evaporation rate. The vapour pressure regression curve is established by measuring the evaporation rate of a set of reference compounds with known vapour pressure.
The test item will be applied to the surface of a roughened glass plate in a homogeneous layer. In the case the test item is solid; it will be suspended in appropriate solvent. The plate will be wetted uniformly by a solution of the test item. The temperature programs will be defined in the preliminary tests. The plate will be placed in the TGA instrument. The weight loss of the test item will be measured continuously as a function of time at at least four different temperatures (at least three replicates).
For the evaluation will be used only the values with the weight loss is ≥ 1µg/min and reproducible in all three replicates.
The vapour pressure [Pa] at 20 °C will be reported.
In case of vapour pressure cannot be determined, because of decomposition, the observation of the experiment - will be reported.
Guidelines and Literature
- European Community (EC), EC No. 761/2009, Part A: Methods for the Determination of Physico-Chemical Properties, Guideline A.4: “Vapour Pressure", Official Journal of the European Union No. L220, August 24, 2009
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals No. 104: "Vapour Pressure", March 23, 2006