- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- OECD 202: Daphnia sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test
- OECD 235: Chironomus sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 218/219: Sediment-Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment/Spiked Water
- OECD 233: Sediment-Water Chironomid Life-Cycle Toxicity Test Using Spiked Water or Spiked Sediment
- OECD 225: Sediment-water Lumbriculus Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment
- OECD 242: Potamopyrgus antipodarum Reproduction Test
- OECD 243: Lymnea stagnalis Reproduction Test
- OECD 203: Fish, Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 215: Fish Juvenile Growth Study
- OECD 212: Fish, Short-term Toxicity Test on Embryo and Sac-fry Stages
- OECD 231: The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay
- OECD 236: Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 210: Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test
- OECD 229 Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay and OECD 230 21-day Fish Assay
- OECD 240 Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)
- OECD 241: Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay
- OPPTS 850.1500: Fish Life Cycle Toxicity Test
- OÈCD 234 Fish sexual development test
- Storage Stability Studies
- OPPTS 830.6302, OPPTS 830.6303,and OPPTS 830.6304: Physical State, Colour and Odor at 20 °C and at 101.3 kPa
- EU A.1: Melting temperature/range
- EU A.2: Boiling temperature
- EU A.3: Relative density (liquids and solids)
- EU A.4: Vapour pressure
- EU A.5: Surface tension
- EU A.9: Flashpoint
- EU A.10: Flammability (solids)
- EU A.12: Flammability (contact with water)
- EU A.13: Pyrophoric properties of solids and liquids
- EU A.16: Relative self-ignition temperature for solids
- EU A.17: Oxidising properties
- OECD 114: Viscosity of Liquids
- Environmental Fate
- Terrestrial Ecotoxicology
- Non-target arthropod testing with the parasitic wasp (Aphidius rhopalosiphi)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the ladybird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory bug (Orius laevigatus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory mite (Typhlodromus pyri)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the rove beetle (Aleochara bilineata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the carabid beetle (Poecilus cupreus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the wolf spider (Pardosa spec.)
- OECD 213/214: Honey bees, Acute Oral and Acute Contact Toxicity Test
- OECD 245: Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.), Chronic Oral Toxicity Test (10-Day Feeding)
- OECD 237: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test, Single Exposure
- OECD 239: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test
- EPPO 170: Honey Bee Field Study – do plant protection products effect honey bee colonies?
- Oomen et al. 1992: Honey Bee Brood Feeding Study
- OECD 75: Honey Bee Brood Test under Semi-field Conditions in Tunnels
- OECD 246/247 Acute Oral and Contact Toxicity to the Bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L.
- Solitary Bee Acute Contact Toxicity Study in the Laboratory (Osmia sp.) Solitary Bee Acute Oral Toxicity Study in the Laboratory (Osmia sp.) (protocols for ringtests with solitary bees recommended by the non-Apis working group)
- SANTE/11956/2016 rev.9 Residue trials for MRL setting in honey
- OECD 208: Terrestrial Plant Test - Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test
- OECD 227: Terrestrial Plant Test - Vegetative Vigour Test
- OCSPP 850.4100: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth
- OCSPP 850.4150: Vegetative Vigor
- EPPO PP 1/207(2): Efficacy evaluation of plant protection products, Effects on succeeding crops
- Ecological Modelling
- Quality Assurance
- Testing of Potential Endocrine Disruptors
- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- Who we are
- Company history
- Our Certificates
OECD 305: Bioaccumulation in Fish: Aqueous and Dietary Exposure
The regulatory process for chemicals (i.e. registered under REACH, plant protection products, biocides, human and veterinary medicinal products) require that substances undergo an assessment to identify whether they are persistent (P), bioaccumulative (B) and toxic (T). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) is the usual basis for defining the B criterion in PBT assessment. The BCF is generally derived experimentally according to OECD Test Guideline 305.
The uptake of the test substance occurs either via direct accumulation of test substance from the aqueous environment (bioconcentration) or via food (biomagnification). However, the guideline OECD 305 states that there should be a preference for aqueous exposure bioaccumulation studies to be run when technically feasible.
The study is regularly designed as flow through study and is carried out with juvenile fish. We perform the bioaccumulation study usually with:
- Danio rerio (Zebrafish) or
- Lepomis macrochirus (Bluegill Sunfish)
- Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout).
Other fish species can also be tested e.g.
- Pimephales promelas (Fathead Minnow).
- Oryzias latipes (Medaka)
Only healthy fish free of observable diseases and abnormalities are used in the study.
Test Set Up
In the study a continuous flow is set using metering pump systems. The loading rate of fish is appropriate for the test species and does not exceed 1 g/L. Fish are daily fed and uneaten food and faeces are removed.
The study is performed with a control group and one or two test substance concentrations. Application of the test substance can be done by dosing the test substance into the water phase or by application of the test substance to the feed. The test consists of two phases: the exposure (uptake) and post-exposure (depuration) phases. During the uptake phase, separate groups of fish are exposed to the test substance. They are after the end of the uptake phase transferred to a medium free of the test substance for the depuration phase. The concentration of the test substance in the fish is followed through both phases. At each sampling point a minimum of four fish are collected. Each fish is analysed individually for its test substance content. The concentration in water or food is determined during the uptake phase.
The study can be performed either using non-labelled or radiolabelled test substance. Radiolabeled test substances can facilitate the analysis of water, food and fish samples, and may be used for identification and quantification of metabolites. Our laboratory is equipped with modern analytical devices for the quantification of labelled and non-labelled test substances. This encompasses liquid scintillation counters, UPLC systems coupled with radio detector and LC-MS/MS systems as well as instruments for sample extraction or clean up.
Based on the determined concentration in fish and water or food the bioconcentration factor is calculated. The kinetic bioconcentration factor /biomagnification is calculated from the model that best describes the measured concentrations of test substance in fish. The BCF will be growth and lipid corrected.
Guidelines and Literature
OECD 305 Bioaccumulation in fish: Aqueous and Dietary Exposure