- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- OECD 202: Daphnia sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test
- OECD 235: Chironomus sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 218/219: Sediment-Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment/Spiked Water
- OECD 233: Sediment-Water Chironomid Life-Cycle Toxicity Test Using Spiked Water or Spiked Sediment
- OECD 225: Sediment-water Lumbriculus Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment
- OECD 242: Potamopyrgus antipodarum Reproduction Test
- OECD 243: Lymnea stagnalis Reproduction Test
- OECD 203: Fish, Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 215: Fish Juvenile Growth Study
- OECD 212: Fish, Short-term Toxicity Test on Embryo and Sac-fry Stages
- OECD 231: The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay
- OECD 236: Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 210: Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test
- OECD 229 Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay and OECD 230 21-day Fish Assay
- OECD 240 Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)
- OECD 241: Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay
- OPPTS 850.1500: Fish Life Cycle Toxicity Test
- OÈCD 234 Fish sexual development test
- Storage Stability Studies
- OPPTS 830.6302, OPPTS 830.6303,and OPPTS 830.6304: Physical State, Colour and Odor at 20 °C and at 101.3 kPa
- EU A.1: Melting temperature/range
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- EU A.3: Relative density (liquids and solids)
- EU A.4: Vapour pressure
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- EU A.9: Flashpoint
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- EU A.12: Flammability (contact with water)
- EU A.13: Pyrophoric properties of solids and liquids
- EU A.16: Relative self-ignition temperature for solids
- EU A.17: Oxidising properties
- OECD 114: Viscosity of Liquids
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- Non-target arthropod testing with the parasitic wasp (Aphidius rhopalosiphi)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the ladybird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory bug (Orius laevigatus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory mite (Typhlodromus pyri)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the rove beetle (Aleochara bilineata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the carabid beetle (Poecilus cupreus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the wolf spider (Pardosa spec.)
- OECD 213/214: Honey bees, Acute Oral and Acute Contact Toxicity Test
- OECD 245: Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.), Chronic Oral Toxicity Test (10-Day Feeding)
- OECD 237: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test, Single Exposure
- OECD 239: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test
- EPPO 170: Honey Bee Field Study – do plant protection products effect honey bee colonies?
- Oomen et al. 1992: Honey Bee Brood Feeding Study
- OECD 75: Honey Bee Brood Test under Semi-field Conditions in Tunnels
- OECD 246/247 Acute Oral and Contact Toxicity to the Bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L.
- Solitary Bee Acute Contact Toxicity Study in the Laboratory (Osmia sp.) Solitary Bee Acute Oral Toxicity Study in the Laboratory (Osmia sp.) (protocols for ringtests with solitary bees recommended by the non-Apis working group)
- SANTE/11956/2016 rev.9 Residue trials for MRL setting in honey
- OECD 208: Terrestrial Plant Test - Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test
- OECD 227: Terrestrial Plant Test - Vegetative Vigour Test
- OCSPP 850.4100: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth
- OCSPP 850.4150: Vegetative Vigor
- EPPO PP 1/207(2): Efficacy evaluation of plant protection products, Effects on succeeding crops
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OECD 317: Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes – Bioaccumulation in Earthworms
The purpose of the study is to determine residues of a test substance in earthworms Eisenia fetida after different intervals up to 21 days exposure (uptake phase) in artificial soil and elimination (post-exposure phase) of residues after different intervals up to another 21 days. By means of bioconcentration and biomagnification processes uptake and elimination parameters as the uptake rate constant and the elimination rate contant as well as the bioaccumulation factor will be calculated.
The test will be carried out using 14C-labelled test substance or non-labelled test substance. The test will be conducted using artificial soil. Incubation will be performed in boxes with perforated transparent lids to enable exchange of air, to minimise evaporation from soil and to prevent the worms from escaping. The boxes will be filled with approximately 250 g artificial soil (dry weight). The amount of soil corresponds to 50 g dry weight per earthworm. The selected concentration of the test substance should preferably be about 1% of its acute asymptotic LC50.
For the test soil ingesting invertebrates, such as Eisenia fetida, (Annelida: Oligochaeta) are used. The adult earthworms (age: 2-12 months) with well developed clitellum have a body weight of 250-600 mg and are bred under standardised conditions at IBACON.
Course of the test
Typically, one concentration of the test substance will be used for the test. The earthworms, 5 individuals per replicated test unit, will be exposed to the test substance treated soil for 21 days (uptake phase). The test units will be incubated at 20 °C ± 2 °C and under a controlled 16/8 hours light/dark cycle, preferably 400 to 800 lux.
During the uptake phase at least 6 sampling points will be done. Earthworm and soil samples will be analysed for the test substance. After the end of the uptake phase the earthworms from remaining test units will be transferred to untreated soil and will be incubated for another 21 days (elimination phase). During the elimination phase at least 6 sampling points will be done. Earthworm samples will be analysed for the test substance.
Besides samples containing the test item additional control samples for determining water content of the artificial soil and fat content of the earthworms will be prepared.
Analysis of the test substance and transformation products
In case of the 14C-labelled test substance the analytical methods will base on LSC and HPLC coupled with UV and radio detection. LC-MS/MS can be carried out as additional analytical method. Non-labelled test substances will be determined by LC-MS/MS method.The analytical method and sample preparation will be established to allow a limit of quantification of ≤ 5% of the applied radioactivity or ≤ 10% of the applied concnetration in soil.
Special test setup
- Depending on the customers needs, artificial soil of different organic carbon content or even natural soil from unpolluted agricultural land can be utilised.
- Mortality and mass change of the earthworms
- Calculations of uptake rate constant and elimination rate constant and statistical analysis, Bioaccumulation Factor at Steady State and Kinetic Bioaccumulation Factor
Guidelines and Literature
- OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, No. 317, ”Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes”; adopted July 22, 2010.