- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- OECD 202: Daphnia sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test
- OECD 235: Chironomus sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 218/219: Sediment-Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment/Spiked Water
- OECD 233: Sediment-Water Chironomid Life-Cycle Toxicity Test Using Spiked Water or Spiked Sediment
- OECD 225: Sediment-water Lumbriculus Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment
- OECD 242: Potamopyrgus antipodarum Reproduction Test
- OECD 243: Lymnaea stagnalis Reproduction Test
- OECD 203: Fish, Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 215: Fish Juvenile Growth Study
- OECD 212: Fish, Short-term Toxicity Test on Embryo and Sac-fry Stages
- OECD 231: The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay
- OECD 236: Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 210: Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test
- OECD 229 Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay and OECD 230 21-day Fish Assay
- OECD 240 Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)
- OECD 248: Xenopus Eleutheroembryonic Thyroid Assay
- OPPTS 850.1500: Fish Life Cycle Toxicity Test
- OÈCD 234 Fish sexual development test
- Storage Stability Studies
- OPPTS 830.6302, OPPTS 830.6303,and OPPTS 830.6304: Physical State, Colour and Odor at 20 °C and at 101.3 kPa
- EU A.1: Melting temperature/range
- EU A.2: Boiling temperature
- EU A.3: Relative density (liquids and solids)
- EU A.4: Vapour pressure
- EU A.5: Surface tension
- EU A.9: Flashpoint
- EU A.10: Flammability (solids)
- EU A.12: Flammability (contact with water)
- EU A.13: Pyrophoric properties of solids and liquids
- EU A.16: Relative self-ignition temperature for solids
- EU A.17: Oxidising properties
- OECD 114: Viscosity of Liquids
- Environmental Fate
- Terrestrial Ecotoxicology
- Non-target arthropod testing with the parasitic wasp (Aphidius rhopalosiphi)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the ladybird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory bug (Orius laevigatus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory mite (Typhlodromus pyri)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the rove beetle (Aleochara bilineata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the carabid beetle (Poecilus cupreus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the wolf spider (Pardosa spec.)
- OECD 213/214: Honey bees, Acute Oral and Acute Contact Toxicity Test
- OECD 245: Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.), Chronic Oral Toxicity Test (10-Day Feeding)
- OECD 237: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test, Single Exposure
- OECD 239: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test
- EPPO 170: Honey Bee Field Study – do plant protection products effect honey bee colonies?
- Oomen et al. 1992: Honey Bee Brood Feeding Study
- OECD 75: Honey Bee Brood Test under Semi-field Conditions in Tunnels
- OECD 246/247 Acute Oral and Contact Toxicity to the Bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L.
- Solitary Bee Acute Contact Toxicity Study in the Laboratory (Osmia sp.) Solitary Bee Acute Oral Toxicity Study in the Laboratory (Osmia sp.) (protocols for ringtests with solitary bees recommended by the non-Apis working group)
- SANTE/11956/2016 rev.9 Residue trials for MRL setting in honey
- OECD 208: Terrestrial Plant Test - Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test
- OECD 227: Terrestrial Plant Test - Vegetative Vigour Test
- OCSPP 850.4100: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth
- OCSPP 850.4150: Vegetative Vigor
- EPPO PP 1/207(2): Efficacy evaluation of plant protection products, Effects on succeeding crops
- Ecological Modelling
- Quality Assurance
- Testing of Potential Endocrine Disruptors
- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- Sabrina Westphal
- Annegaaike Leopold
- Dr. Melanie Lichtenberger
- Dr. Maria Meinerling
- Frank Ströhle
- Frauke Ewert
- Christine Rushby
- Feride Karabiyik
- Dr. Saúl Molina-Herrera
- Christiane Rutschmann-Fröhlich
- Thomas Deierling
- Dr. Benoit Goussen
- Sabine Schwientek
- Dr. Patrick Riefer
- Dr. Anja Meister-Werner
- Martina Schmalhorst
- Who we are
- Company history
- Our Certificates
OECD 232: Collembolan Reproduction Test in Soil
The reproduction of Folsomia candida will be determined in a laboratory experiment. Therefore the collembolans are exposed to soil that is treated with the test substance and compared to a control and to a reference item. The Directive 1107/2009 requires assessment of effects on soil organisms for all test compounds. For substances applied directly to soil testing on Folsomia candida is mandatory, as they are considered to be a relevant representative of soil fauna. The reproduction provides information about inhibition of the specific population growth rate
The springtail Folsomia candida is a soil inhabiting species of worldwide distribution. A short life cycle and easy breeding qualifies this species for laboratory testing. They are very common and frequent soil arthropods. Collembolans are feeding on organic matter, soil fungi, bacteria and pollen. Springtails play a central role in the soil food chain since they generate organic matter for the bacterial mineralization process and they serve as prey for predatory soil animals. Furthermore they control the growth of soil fungi and contribute thereby to plant growth. The test organisms used are bred in our own laboratory culture.
Course of the Test (OECD 232)
The studies are performed in controlled environmental rooms with defined temperature. Illumination follows a night and day rhythm.
If there is no information about the toxicity of the test substance, a range finding pre-test helps to identify the suitable concentration range. The number of test concentrations and replicates depends on the experimental design.
Usually 5 test item concentrations (8 concentrations for ECx-design) with four replicates and a negative control comprising eight replicates are tested. A toxic reference substance is tested in a dose response design at least once per year.
The test substance is mixed into an artificial soil consisting of quartz sand, sphagnum peat, kaolin clay and calcium carbonate. Moisture and pH are adjusted.
Ten springtails between 9 and 12 days old are introduced into each test vessels and exposed for 28 days. The exposure route is via dermal and alimentary uptake. During the test the springtails are fed with dry yeast.
At the end of the test the surviving adult springtails and the number of offspring produced are counted. For the assessment the complete soil is mixed with water and ink. Thus the springtails are drifting on the soil surface and can be counted under the binocular.
As the focus of this study lies on reproduction, the tested concentration range mostly results in slight or no mortality. The number of surviving springtails and the offspring of the springtails of the test item groups is compared to the numbers of the control group.
Results on reproduction are used to determine a NOEC (no observed effect concentration) or to calculate an EC10 and EC20.
Guidelines and Literature
- OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals Test No. 232: OECD 232: Collembolan Reproduction Test in Soil, adopted guideline 7 September 2009.
- ISO 11267 ISO Soil Quality – Inhibition of reproduction of Collembola (Folsomia candida) by soil pollutants, 1999.