- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- OECD 202: Daphnia sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test
- OECD 235: Chironomus sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 218/219: Sediment-Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment/Spiked Water
- OECD 233: Sediment-Water Chironomid Life-Cycle Toxicity Test Using Spiked Water or Spiked Sediment
- OECD 225: Sediment-water Lumbriculus Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment
- OECD 242: Potamopyrgus antipodarum Reproduction Test
- OECD 243: Lymnaea stagnalis Reproduction Test
- OECD 203: Fish, Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 215: Fish Juvenile Growth Study
- OECD 212: Fish, Short-term Toxicity Test on Embryo and Sac-fry Stages
- OECD 231: The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay
- OECD 236: Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 210: Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test
- OECD 229 Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay and OECD 230 21-day Fish Assay
- OECD 240 Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)
- OECD 248: Xenopus Eleutheroembryo Thyroid Assay
- OPPTS 850.1500: Fish Life Cycle Toxicity Test
- OÈCD 234 Fish sexual development test
- Storage Stability Studies
- EU A.1: Melting temperature/range
- EU A.2: Boiling temperature
- EU A.3: Relative density (liquids and solids)
- EU A.4: Vapour pressure
- EU A.5: Surface tension
- EU A.9: Flashpoint
- EU A.10: Flammability (solids)
- EU A.12: Flammability (contact with water)
- EU A.13: Pyrophoric properties of solids and liquids
- EU A.16: Relative self-ignition temperature for solids
- EU A.17: Oxidising properties
- OECD 114: Viscosity of Liquids
- Environmental Fate
- Terrestrial Ecotoxicology
- Non-target arthropod testing with the parasitic wasp (Aphidius rhopalosiphi)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the ladybird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory bug (Orius laevigatus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory mite (Typhlodromus pyri)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the rove beetle (Aleochara bilineata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the carabid beetle (Poecilus cupreus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the wolf spider (Pardosa spec.)
- OECD 213/214: Honey bees, Acute Oral and Acute Contact Toxicity Test
- OECD 245: Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.), Chronic Oral Toxicity Test (10-Day Feeding)
- OECD 237: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test, Single Exposure
- OECD 239: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test
- EPPO 170: Honey Bee Field Study – do plant protection products effect honey bee colonies?
- Oomen et al. 1992: Honey Bee Brood Feeding Study
- OECD 75: Honey Bee Brood Test under Semi-field Conditions in Tunnels
- OECD 246/247 Acute Oral and Contact Toxicity to the Bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L.
- SANTE/11956/2016 rev.9 Residue trials for MRL setting in honey
- OECD 208: Terrestrial Plant Test - Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test
- OECD 227: Terrestrial Plant Test - Vegetative Vigour Test
- OCSPP 850.4100: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth
- OCSPP 850.4150: Vegetative Vigor
- EPPO PP 1/207(2): Efficacy evaluation of plant protection products, Effects on succeeding crops
- Ecological Modelling
- Quality Assurance
- Testing of Potential Endocrine Disruptors
- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- Sabrina Westphal
- Dr. Melanie Lichtenberger
- Dr. Maria Meinerling
- Frauke Ewert
- Frank Ströhle
- Dr. Mercedes Dragovits
- Christine Rushby
- Feride Karabiyik
- Dr. Saúl Molina-Herrera
- Christiane Rutschmann-Fröhlich
- Thomas Deierling
- Jan Schostag
- Dr. Benoit Goussen
- Sabine Schwientek
- Dr. Patrick Riefer
- Dr. Anja Meister-Werner
- Martina Schmalhorst
- Who we are
- Company history
- Our Certificates
EU A.12: Flammability (contact with water)
This test method can be used to determine whether the reaction of a substance with water or damp air leads to the development of dangerous amounts of gas or gases which may be highly flammable.
Course of the test
The test item will be tested according to the step by step sequence described below; if ignition occurs at any step, no further testing is necessary because the substance is regarded as hazardous. If it is known that the test item does not react violently water it will proceeded to step 4.
A small quantity (approx. 2 mm diameter) of the test item will be placed in a petri dish which contains deion. water at 20 °C. A note will be made of whether any gas is evolved and if ignition of the gas occurs.
A filter paper will be floated flat on the surface of deion. water at 20 °C in a petri dish. A small quantity (approx. 2 mm diameter) of the test item will be placed onto the centre of the filter paper. A note will be made of whether any gas is evolved and if ignition of the gas occurs.
The test item will be made into a pile approximately 2 cm high and 3 cm in diameter with an indentation on the top. A few drops of water will be added to the hollow and a note will be made whether any gas is evolved and if ignition of the gas occurs.
The container of the test item will be inspected for any powder < 500 µm (particle size). If the powder constitutes more than 1 % w/w of the total, or if the sample is friable, then the whole of the test item will be ground to a powder before testing. Otherwise the test item will be tested as received.
The test will be performed at room temperature (approximately 20 °C) and atmospheric pressure.
10 to 20 mL of water will be put into the dropping funnel of the apparatus and 10 g of the test item will be put in the conical flask. The volume of gas evolved will be measured by suitable apparatus.
The tap of the dropping funnel will be opened to let the water into the conical flash and a stop watch will be started. The gas evolution will be measured each hour during a seven hour period. If, during this period, the gas evolution is erratic, or if, at the end of this period, the rate of gas evolution is increasing, then measurements will be continued for up to five days. If, at any time of measurement, the rate of gas evolution exceeds 1 litre/kg per hour, the test will be discontinued.
This test will be performed in triplicate.
If the chemical identity of the gas is unknown, the gas will be analyzed. When the gas contains highly flammable components and it is unknown whether the whole mixture is highly flammable, a mixture of the same composition will be prepared and tested according to the method A.11.
The substance is considered hazardous if:
- spontaneous ignition takes place in any step of the test procedure,
- there is evolution of flammable gas at a rate greater than 1 litre/kg of the substance per hour.
Guidelines and literature
- European Economic Community (EEC), EEC Directive 92/69, Annex V, Part A, Methods for the determination of physico-chemical properties, A.12 „Flammability (Contact with Water)“, EEC Publication No. L383, December 1992.