- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- OECD 202: Daphnia sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test
- OECD 235: Chironomus sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 218/219: Sediment-Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment/Spiked Water
- OECD 233: Sediment-Water Chironomid Life-Cycle Toxicity Test Using Spiked Water or Spiked Sediment
- OECD 225: Sediment-water Lumbriculus Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment
- OECD 242: Potamopyrgus antipodarum Reproduction Test
- OECD 243: Lymnea stagnalis Reproduction Test
- OECD 203: Fish, Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 215: Fish Juvenile Growth Study
- OECD 212: Fish, Short-term Toxicity Test on Embryo and Sac-fry Stages
- OECD 231: The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay
- OECD 236: Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 210: Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test
- OECD 229 Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay and OECD 230 21-day Fish Assay
- OECD 240 Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)
- OECD 241: Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay
- OPPTS 850.1500: Fish Life Cycle Toxicity Test
- OÈCD 234 Fish sexual development test
- Storage Stability Studies
- EU A.1: Melting temperature/range
- EU A.2: Boiling temperature
- EU A.3: Relative density (liquids and solids)
- EU A.4: Vapour pressure
- EU A.5: Surface tension
- EU A.9: Flashpoint
- EU A.10: Flammability (solids)
- EU A.12: Flammability (contact with water)
- EU A.13: Pyrophoric properties of solids and liquids
- EU A.16: Relative self-ignition temperature for solids
- EU A.17: Oxidising properties
- OECD 114: Viscosity of Liquids
- Environmental Fate
- Terrestrial Ecotoxicology
- Non-target arthropod testing with the parasitic wasp (Aphidius rhopalosiphi)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the ladybird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory bug (Orius laevigatus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory mite (Typhlodromus pyri)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the rove beetle (Aleochara bilineata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the carabid beetle (Poecilus cupreus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the wolf spider (Pardosa spec.)
- OECD 213/214: Honey bees, Acute Oral and Acute Contact Toxicity Test
- Honeybee: Chronic Feeding Tests
- OECD 237: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test, Single Exposure
- Effects on Honey Bee Brood (Apis mellifera) - Brood Feeding Test -
- OECD Draft TG: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test, Repeated Exposure
- OECD 75: Honey Bee Brood Test under Semi-field conditions
- EPPO 170: Honey Bee Field Study – do plant protection products effect honey bee colonies?
- Acute Oral and Contact Toxicity to the Bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L.
- Ecological Modelling
- Quality Assurance
- Testing of Potential Endocrine Disruptors
- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
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Collembolan Field Study
A field study to assess effects and recovery on non-target soil arthropod communities
Non-target soil arthropods are important determinants for essential ecological functions of the agro-ecosystem like soil fertility and litter degradation. Applications of plant protection products should not significantly affect population development and community structure of soil arthropods like collembolans. A field study on collembolans under Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) is indicated if laboratory studies as well higher tier studies cannot sufficiently prove harmlessness of the plant protection product on non-target soil arthropods. The collembolan field study allows determining short and long term effects on soil arthropod communities and the potential for recovery.
Collembolans, living in natural populations
Design of the Test Field
The collembolan field studies are conducted on grassland or arable fields. The test item (if desired with multiple rates), a water- or untreated control, and a toxic reference item (e.g. chlorpyrifos) are applied with at least four replicates on the test field according to GAP. All plots are arranged in a fully randomized design. The plot size is usually 100 m² (10m x 10m), but can vary depending on the study design. Distance between the plots is at least 3 m and approx. 10 m distance to the fields next to the test site.
Collembolans are identified to suborder, family or species level depending on the study design. Other organisms like soil mites (e.g. Oribatida, Acari) or enchytraeids can be extracted and identified on request.
Application of Test Substances
The application procedure is conducted similar to agricultural practice. The time and frequency of applications follows the intended use of the product taking into account product persistence and possible interception by vegetation. The application of the test substances are carried out with a calibrated movable plot sprayer or granule applicator.
Analytical Verification of the Test Item Application
ibacon offers three methods for verfication:
- analysis of spray liquid samples taken before test item application
- determination of the a.i. content in soil samples
- analysis of spray residues from Petri dishes placed on the test item treated plots during application
Collembolans are sampled with two different methods to cover collembolan populations from different ecological groups. Soil dwellers are extracted with a Mac Fayden heat extractor from soil cores. Usually six soil cores are taken per plot (euedaphic collembolans). Collembolans living in the litter- and top soil layer are caught with pitfall traps (epedaphic collembolans). Four traps are installed per plot.
Recording of environmental Conditions
Soil parameter (soil profile, pH, C-content, water holding capacity, particle size composition) and climate data (soil and air temperature, soil humidity, precipitation) are taken throughout the study.
Course of the Study
Collembolans are sampled before the application of the test item and usally four times after application. Plots are irrigated if the application of the test item is conducted during dry climatic conditions to ensure exposure of the soil arthropods to the test and reference item. Duration: 6 -12 months
Evaluation of the treatment effect is done by using Abbott’s formula for all representative taxa at each sampling instance. Statistical analysis on single taxa level is performed using univariate techniques. The effect of the test item on collembolans is statistically analyzed and compared with the control group for each sampling date. Control and reference item treatments are compared separately. Evaluation of the treatment effect on the arthropod community is done by using multivariate techniques and performing a principal response curve analysis (PRC).
The collembola field study accepts initial test item effects and usually focuses on the timespan which is necessary to demonstrate recovery. Recovery is considered to have occurred when soil organism numbers are not significantly lower than the control on two consecutive sampling occasions.
Guidelines and Literature
- ISO 23611-2 (2007). Soil quality - Sampling of soil invertebrates - Part 2: Sampling and extraction of micro-arthropods (Collembola and Acarina).
- de Jong F.M.W. et al. (2010) Guidance for summarising and evaluation field studies with non-target arthropods. A guidance document of Dutch Platform for the Assessment of Higher Tier Studies Test Organisms. RIVM, Bilthoven, Netherlands.