- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- OECD 202: Daphnia sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test
- OECD 235: Chironomus sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 218/219: Sediment-Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment/Spiked Water
- OECD 233: Sediment-Water Chironomid Life-Cycle Toxicity Test Using Spiked Water or Spiked Sediment
- OECD 225: Sediment-water Lumbriculus Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment
- OECD 242: Potamopyrgus antipodarum Reproduction Test
- OECD 243: Lymnea stagnalis Reproduction Test
- OECD 203: Fish, Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 215: Fish Juvenile Growth Study
- OECD 212: Fish, Short-term Toxicity Test on Embryo and Sac-fry Stages
- OECD 231: The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay
- OECD 236: Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 210: Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test
- OECD 229 Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay and OECD 230 21-day Fish Assay
- OECD 240 Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)
- OECD 241: Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay
- OPPTS 850.1500: Fish Life Cycle Toxicity Test
- OÈCD 234 Fish sexual development test
- Storage Stability Studies
- OPPTS 830.6302, OPPTS 830.6303,and OPPTS 830.6304: Physical State, Colour and Odor at 20 °C and at 101.3 kPa
- EU A.1: Melting temperature/range
- EU A.2: Boiling temperature
- EU A.3: Relative density (liquids and solids)
- EU A.4: Vapour pressure
- EU A.5: Surface tension
- EU A.9: Flashpoint
- EU A.10: Flammability (solids)
- EU A.12: Flammability (contact with water)
- EU A.13: Pyrophoric properties of solids and liquids
- EU A.16: Relative self-ignition temperature for solids
- EU A.17: Oxidising properties
- OECD 114: Viscosity of Liquids
- Environmental Fate
- Terrestrial Ecotoxicology
- Non-target arthropod testing with the parasitic wasp (Aphidius rhopalosiphi)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the ladybird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory bug (Orius laevigatus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory mite (Typhlodromus pyri)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the rove beetle (Aleochara bilineata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the carabid beetle (Poecilus cupreus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the wolf spider (Pardosa spec.)
- OECD 213/214: Honey bees, Acute Oral and Acute Contact Toxicity Test
- OECD 245: Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.), Chronic Oral Toxicity Test (10-Day Feeding)
- OECD 237: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test, Single Exposure
- OECD 239: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test
- EPPO 170: Honey Bee Field Study – do plant protection products effect honey bee colonies?
- Oomen et al. 1992: Honey Bee Brood Feeding Study
- OECD 75: Honey Bee Brood Test under Semi-field Conditions in Tunnels
- OECD 246/247 Acute Oral and Contact Toxicity to the Bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L.
- Solitary Bee Acute Contact Toxicity Study in the Laboratory (Osmia sp.) Solitary Bee Acute Oral Toxicity Study in the Laboratory (Osmia sp.) (protocols for ringtests with solitary bees recommended by the non-Apis working group)
- SANTE/11956/2016 rev.9 Residue trials for MRL setting in honey
- OECD 208: Terrestrial Plant Test - Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test
- OECD 227: Terrestrial Plant Test - Vegetative Vigour Test
- OCSPP 850.4100: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth
- OCSPP 850.4150: Vegetative Vigor
- EPPO PP 1/207(2): Efficacy evaluation of plant protection products, Effects on succeeding crops
- Ecological Modelling
- Quality Assurance
- Testing of Potential Endocrine Disruptors
- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
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OECD 226: Predatory mite reproduction test in soil
The reproduction of Hypoaspis aculeifer will be determined in a laboratory experiment. Therefore the mites are exposed to soil that is treated with the test substance and compared to a control and to a reference item. The Directive 1107/2009 requires assessment of effects on soil organisms for all test compounds. For substances applied directly to soil testing on Hypoaspis aculeifer is mandatory, as they are considered to be a relevant representative of soil fauna. The reproduction provides information about inhibition of the specific population growth rate.
Hypoaspis aculeifer is a widespread predatory mite in soil ecosystems, feeding on Enchytraeids, Collembola, other Mites and Nematodes. Its ecological importance in agriculture is the potential to regulate plant parasitic nematodes. It is worldwide distributed and can easily be collected and reared in the laboratory. The mites are bred in in-house laboratory cultures to assure availability of the test organisms all over the year.
Course of the Test (OECD 226)
The studies are performed in controlled environmental rooms with defined temperature. Illumination follows a night and day rhythm.
If there is no information about the toxicity of the test substance, a range finding pre-test helps to identify the suitable concentration range. Preferably the tested concentrations should affect reproduction and not mortality of the adult female mites. The number of test concentrations and replicates depends on the experimental design.
Usually 5 test item concentrations (8 concentrations for ECx-design) with four replicates and a negative control comprising eight replicates are tested. A toxic reference substance is tested in a dose response design at least once per year.
The test substance is mixed into an artificial soil consisting of quartz sand, sphagnum peat, kaolin clay and calcium carbonate. Moisture and pH are adjusted.
Ten adult female mites from synchronised breeding are introduced in each replicate. The female mites are exposed in the soil for 14 days. The mites are fed with living prey, e.g. cheese mites (Tyrophagus putrescentiae). The exposure takes place via dermal and alimentary uptake.
At the end of the study the surviving female mites and the juveniles are extracted via a heat gradient. After extraction numbers of juveniles and adults are counted separately under binoculars.
ibacon performs studies on H. aculeifer according to GLP for many years. ibacon’s study director participated in the ring tests with H. aculeifer and contributed to the working group establishing the OECD 226.
[soil mites 002] As the focus of this study lies on reproduction, the tested concentration range mostly results in slight or no mortality. The number of offspring of the mites exposed to the test item is compared to that of the control group.
Results on reproduction are used to determine a NOEC (no observed effect concentration) or to calculate an EC10 and EC20.
Guidelines and Literature
- OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals Test No. 226: Predatory mite (Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) aculeifer) reproduction test in soil, adopted guideline October 3, 2008.