- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- OECD 202: Daphnia sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test
- OECD 235: Chironomus sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 218/219: Sediment-Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment/Spiked Water
- OECD 233: Sediment-Water Chironomid Life-Cycle Toxicity Test Using Spiked Water or Spiked Sediment
- OECD 225: Sediment-water Lumbriculus Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment
- OECD 242: Potamopyrgus antipodarum Reproduction Test
- OECD 243: Lymnea stagnalis Reproduction Test
- OECD 203: Fish, Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 215: Fish Juvenile Growth Study
- OECD 212: Fish, Short-term Toxicity Test on Embryo and Sac-fry Stages
- OECD 231: The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay
- OECD 236: Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 210: Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test
- OECD 229 Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay and OECD 230 21-day Fish Assay
- OECD 240 Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)
- OECD 241: Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay
- OPPTS 850.1500: Fish Life Cycle Toxicity Test
- OÈCD 234 Fish sexual development test
- Storage Stability Studies
- OPPTS 830.6302, OPPTS 830.6303,and OPPTS 830.6304: Physical State, Colour and Odor at 20 °C and at 101.3 kPa
- EU A.1: Melting temperature/range
- EU A.2: Boiling temperature
- EU A.3: Relative density (liquids and solids)
- EU A.4: Vapour pressure
- EU A.5: Surface tension
- EU A.9: Flashpoint
- EU A.10: Flammability (solids)
- EU A.12: Flammability (contact with water)
- EU A.13: Pyrophoric properties of solids and liquids
- EU A.16: Relative self-ignition temperature for solids
- EU A.17: Oxidising properties
- OECD 114: Viscosity of Liquids
- Environmental Fate
- Terrestrial Ecotoxicology
- Non-target arthropod testing with the parasitic wasp (Aphidius rhopalosiphi)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the ladybird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory bug (Orius laevigatus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory mite (Typhlodromus pyri)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the rove beetle (Aleochara bilineata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the carabid beetle (Poecilus cupreus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the wolf spider (Pardosa spec.)
- OECD 213/214: Honey bees, Acute Oral and Acute Contact Toxicity Test
- OECD 245: Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.), Chronic Oral Toxicity Test (10-Day Feeding)
- OECD 237: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test, Single Exposure
- OECD 239: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test
- EPPO 170: Honey Bee Field Study – do plant protection products effect honey bee colonies?
- Oomen et al. 1992: Honey Bee Brood Feeding Study
- OECD 75: Honey Bee Brood Test under Semi-field Conditions in Tunnels
- OECD 246/247 Acute Oral and Contact Toxicity to the Bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L.
- Solitary Bee Acute Contact Toxicity Study in the Laboratory (Osmia sp.) Solitary Bee Acute Oral Toxicity Study in the Laboratory (Osmia sp.) (protocols for ringtests with solitary bees recommended by the non-Apis working group)
- SANTE/11956/2016 rev.9 Residue trials for MRL setting in honey
- OECD 208: Terrestrial Plant Test - Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test
- OECD 227: Terrestrial Plant Test - Vegetative Vigour Test
- OCSPP 850.4100: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth
- OCSPP 850.4150: Vegetative Vigor
- EPPO PP 1/207(2): Efficacy evaluation of plant protection products, Effects on succeeding crops
- Ecological Modelling
- Quality Assurance
- Testing of Potential Endocrine Disruptors
- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- Who we are
- Company history
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Nematode Field Study
A field study to assess effects and recovery on non-target soil nematode communities
Non-target soil organisms are important determinants for essential ecological functions of the agro-ecosystem like soil fertility and litter degradation. Applications of plant protection products should not significantly affect population development and community structure of soil organisms like nematodes. A field study on nematodes under Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) is indicated if laboratory studies as well higher tier studies cannot sufficiently prove harmlessness of the plant protection product on non-target soil organisms. The nematode field study allows determining short and long term effects on soil organism communities and the potential for recovery.
nematodes, living in natural populations
Design of the Test Field
The nematode field studies are usually conducted on arable fields. The test item (if desired with multiple rates), a water- or untreated control, and a toxic reference item (e.g. nematicide) are applied with at least four replicates on the test field according to GAP. All plots are arranged in a fully randomized design. The plot size is usually 100 m² (10m x 10m), but can vary depending on the study design. Distance between the plots is at least 3 m and approx. 10 m distance to the fields next to the test site.
Nematode are identified to suborder, family or species level depending on the study design.
Application of Test Substances
The application procedure is conducted similar to agricultural practice. The time and frequency of applications follows the intended use of the product taking into account product persistence and possible interception by vegetation. The application of the test substances are carried out with a calibrated movable plot sprayer or granule applicator.
Analytical Verification of the Test Item Application
ibacon offers three methods for verfication:
- analysis of spray liquid samples taken before test item application
- determination of the a.i. content in soil samples
- analysis of spray residues from Petri dishes placed on the test item treated plots during application
Nematodes are sampled by soil core sampling (sampling depth 0-10cm). Subsamples are fixed with a formalin solution and extracted from the soil by using a Ludox centrifugation method.
Recording of environmental Conditions
Soil parameter (soil profile, pH, C-content, water holding capacity, particle size composition) and climate data (soil and air temperature, soil humidity, precipitation) are taken throughout the study.
Course of the Study
Nematodes are sampled before the application of the test item and usally four times after application. Duration: 6 -12 months
Statistical analysis on single feeding types/taxa is performed using univariate techniques (e.g. Williams test). The effect of the test item on nematodes is statistically analyzed and compared with the control group for each sampling date. Control and reference item treatments are compared separately. Evaluation of the treatment effect on the nematode community is done by using multivariate techniques and performing a principal response curve analysis (PRC).
The nematode field study accepts initial test item effects and usually focuses on the timespan which is necessary to demonstrate recovery. Recovery is considered to have occurred when soil organism numbers are not significantly lower than the control on two consecutive sampling occasions.
Guidelines and Literature
- ISO 23611-2 (2007). Soil quality - Sampling of soil invertebrates - Part 2: Sampling and extraction of micro-arthropods (Collembola and Acarina).
- de Jong F.M.W. et al. (2010) Guidance for summarising and evaluation field studies with non-target arthropods. A guidance document of Dutch Platform for the Assessment of Higher Tier Studies Test Organisms. RIVM, Bilthoven, Netherlands.