- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- OECD 202: Daphnia sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test
- OECD 235: Chironomus sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 218/219: Sediment-Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment/Spiked Water
- OECD 233: Sediment-Water Chironomid Life-Cycle Toxicity Test Using Spiked Water or Spiked Sediment
- OECD 225: Sediment-water Lumbriculus Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment
- OECD 242: Potamopyrgus antipodarum Reproduction Test
- OECD 243: Lymnea stagnalis Reproduction Test
- OECD 203: Fish, Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 215: Fish Juvenile Growth Study
- OECD 212: Fish, Short-term Toxicity Test on Embryo and Sac-fry Stages
- OECD 231: The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay
- OECD 236: Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 210: Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test
- OECD 229 Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay and OECD 230 21-day Fish Assay
- OECD 240 Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)
- OECD 241: Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay
- OPPTS 850.1500: Fish Life Cycle Toxicity Test
- OÈCD 234 Fish sexual development test
- Storage Stability Studies
- OPPTS 830.6302, OPPTS 830.6303,and OPPTS 830.6304: Physical State, Colour and Odor at 20 °C and at 101.3 kPa
- EU A.1: Melting temperature/range
- EU A.2: Boiling temperature
- EU A.3: Relative density (liquids and solids)
- EU A.4: Vapour pressure
- EU A.5: Surface tension
- EU A.9: Flashpoint
- EU A.10: Flammability (solids)
- EU A.12: Flammability (contact with water)
- EU A.13: Pyrophoric properties of solids and liquids
- EU A.16: Relative self-ignition temperature for solids
- EU A.17: Oxidising properties
- OECD 114: Viscosity of Liquids
- Environmental Fate
- Terrestrial Ecotoxicology
- Non-target arthropod testing with the parasitic wasp (Aphidius rhopalosiphi)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the ladybird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory bug (Orius laevigatus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory mite (Typhlodromus pyri)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the rove beetle (Aleochara bilineata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the carabid beetle (Poecilus cupreus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the wolf spider (Pardosa spec.)
- OECD 213/214: Honey bees, Acute Oral and Acute Contact Toxicity Test
- Honeybee: Chronic Feeding Tests
- OECD 237: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test, Single Exposure
- Effects on Honey Bee Brood (Apis mellifera) - Brood Feeding Test -
- OECD Draft TG: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test, Repeated Exposure
- OECD 75: Honey Bee Brood Test under Semi-field conditions
- EPPO 170: Honey Bee Field Study – do plant protection products effect honey bee colonies?
- Acute Oral and Contact Toxicity to the Bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L.
- Ecological Modelling
- Quality Assurance
- Testing of Potential Endocrine Disruptors
- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- Who we are
- Company history
- Our Certificates
Effects on Honey Bee Brood (Apis mellifera) - Brood Feeding Test -
This test system is designed to assess the effects of plant protection products to the honey bee brood. The method of investigating the development of the honey bee brood is based on the method of Oomen et al. (1992). Ontogenesis of eggs, young and old larvae of honey bees are observed as well as mortality of the adult honey bees and sublethal effects, such as changes in behaviour.
Honey bee colonies, disease-free and queen-right, bred by ibacon according to normal beekeeping practice. Honey bees are free flying with access to natural nectar sources. At least 3 colonies are used per treatment group.
Course of the test
The test item is mixed into a ready-to-use sugar solution. 1 L of the spiked sugar solution is offered in a feeding trough per colony. The feeding troughs are removed after complete uptake of the food or at the earliest after 24 hours. If food uptake is incomplete 24 hours after the start of dosing, the food will be left in the hive until food uptake is complete.
Mortality and behavioural abnormalities are recorded each day until the end of the test, typically 21 days after application.
Assessment of bee brood development (photo method):
For bee brood assessment several brood combs are taken out of each colony and a digital picture of each comb is taken. An area with at least 100 cells containing eggs, 100 cells containing young larvae and 100 cells containing old larvae are selected and marked on the first assessment date (= BFD 0) by using a computer assisted digital program (e.g. Honeybee Brood Logger, Supplier: WSC Scientific GmbH, www.wsc-regexperts.com). On each subsequent assessment date, the combs are taken out of the hive again and another digital photo is taken in order to follow up the progress of the initial marked cells. This procedure is repeated in regular intervals (BFDn = 5, 10, 16, 21 days ± 1 day) until a full period of bee development is completed (i.e. 21 days, see table 1). This allows a continuous photo-documentation following the first brood fixing day (BFD0) until the end of the assessment period.
|Assessment Date||Expected Brood Stage|
|1 - 2 days before application (=BFD0)||eggs||young larvae||old larvae|
|+ 5 days (± 1 day) after BFD0||larvae or capped cells||old larvae or capped cells||capped cells|
|+ 10 days (± 1 day) after BFD0||capped cells||capped cells||capped cells|
|+ 16 days (± 1 day) after BFD0||capped cells||capped cells or empty cells||empty cells|
|+ 21 days (± 1 day) after BFD0||empty cells||all development stages, empty or food||not necessary|
Because of biological variances (e.g. an accelerated or delayed development) the definite development pattern should be adopted.
The Endpoint of this test design is the Brood Termination rate, which is the number of unsuccessfully developed cells divided by the total number of marked cells per brood stage (eggs, young larvae and old larvae, respectively). Results obtained from the colonies treated with test item are compared to those obtained from the reference item and the untreated control. If indicated appropriate statistical methods are applied.
Guidelines and Literature
- Oomen P.A., d Ruijter & J. van der Steen 1992: Method for honey bee brood feeding tests with insect growth-regulating insecticides, OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 22:613-616 (1992)
- Schmitzer S., Lückmann J. (2013), Evaluation and improvement of the Oomen bee brood test; Poster Presentation at the SETAC GLB Conference in Essen, Germany, 2013 and the 8th SETAC Europe Special Science Symposium, Brussels, Belgium, 2013.