- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- OECD 202: Daphnia sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test
- OECD 235: Chironomus sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 218/219: Sediment-Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment/Spiked Water
- OECD 233: Sediment-Water Chironomid Life-Cycle Toxicity Test Using Spiked Water or Spiked Sediment
- OECD 225: Sediment-water Lumbriculus Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment
- OECD 242: Potamopyrgus antipodarum Reproduction Test
- OECD 243: Lymnea stagnalis Reproduction Test
- OECD 203: Fish, Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 215: Fish Juvenile Growth Study
- OECD 212: Fish, Short-term Toxicity Test on Embryo and Sac-fry Stages
- OECD 231: The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay
- OECD 236: Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 210: Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test
- OECD 229 Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay and OECD 230 21-day Fish Assay
- OECD 240 Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)
- OECD 241: Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay
- OPPTS 850.1500: Fish Life Cycle Toxicity Test
- OÈCD 234 Fish sexual development test
- Storage Stability Studies
- OPPTS 830.6302, OPPTS 830.6303,and OPPTS 830.6304: Physical State, Colour and Odor at 20 °C and at 101.3 kPa
- EU A.1: Melting temperature/range
- EU A.2: Boiling temperature
- EU A.3: Relative density (liquids and solids)
- EU A.4: Vapour pressure
- EU A.5: Surface tension
- EU A.9: Flashpoint
- EU A.10: Flammability (solids)
- EU A.12: Flammability (contact with water)
- EU A.13: Pyrophoric properties of solids and liquids
- EU A.16: Relative self-ignition temperature for solids
- EU A.17: Oxidising properties
- OECD 114: Viscosity of Liquids
- Environmental Fate
- Terrestrial Ecotoxicology
- Non-target arthropod testing with the parasitic wasp (Aphidius rhopalosiphi)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the ladybird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory bug (Orius laevigatus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory mite (Typhlodromus pyri)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the rove beetle (Aleochara bilineata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the carabid beetle (Poecilus cupreus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the wolf spider (Pardosa spec.)
- OECD 213/214: Honey bees, Acute Oral and Acute Contact Toxicity Test
- Honeybee: Chronic Feeding Tests
- OECD 237: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test, Single Exposure
- Effects on Honey Bee Brood (Apis mellifera) - Brood Feeding Test -
- OECD Draft TG: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test, Repeated Exposure
- OECD 75: Honey Bee Brood Test under Semi-field conditions
- EPPO 170: Honey Bee Field Study – do plant protection products effect honey bee colonies?
- Acute Oral and Contact Toxicity to the Bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L.
- Ecological Modelling
- Quality Assurance
- Testing of Potential Endocrine Disruptors
- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
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OECD 227: Terrestrial Plant Test - Vegetative Vigour Test
Non-target plants, i.e. plants in natural and semi-natural habitats within the agricultural land such as hedgerows, field borders, meadows and other small biotopes, may unintentionally be exposed to plant protection products drifting from the agricultural fields, to veterinary medicinal products by fertilisation with manure from treated livestock, to biozides or chemicals.
The OECD guideline OECD 227 assesses the potential effects on plants following deposition of the test item on the seedlings at the 2-4 true leaf stage.
The plant species selected for the test should derive from different plant families to consider the taxonomic diversity in the plant kingdom and should give reliable and reproducible results. Usually 6 to 10 plant species are chosen according to the specific properties of the test item and the intended use. Among them could be for example Allium cepa (onion), Zea mays (corn), Brassica napus (oilseed rape), Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Glycine max (soybean), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Solanum lycopersicon (tomato) or Stellaria media (common chickweed).
Test rates are usually determined in a range-finding pre-test. For plant protection products the rates for the pre-test are calculated based on the maximum application rate.
Course of the test
Plants are grown from seeds to the 2- to 4- true leaf stage. The sowing takes place on different dates to ensure that all species are in this stage at the application day. The test item is then sprayed onto the seedlings. The test item concentration has to be confirmed analytically. After the application, the plants are evaluated weekly for effects (phytotoxticity) in comparison to water treated control plants for 21 days. At the test end the endpoints are measured and recorded.
Endpoints are mortality and fresh weight. If the test is conducted as multiple rate test effects on fresh weight are reported as ERX (effective rate) for each species individually or if the test is conducted as limit test as NOER (no observed effect rate).
Additional parameters that can be assessed are height and dry weight. Effects on these parameters are reported as ERX for each species individually.
Phytotoxicity (e.g. chlorosis, necrosis, abnormal growth, growth reduction) and growth stages (BBCH code) are recorded.
Guidelines and Literature
- OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals No. 227 “Terrestrial Plant Test: Vegetative Vigour Test”, adopted July 19, 2006
- OCSPP 850.4150 “Vegetative vigour”, EPA 712-C-011, January 2012