- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
- OECD 202: Daphnia sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test
- OECD 235: Chironomus sp., Acute Immobilisation Test
- OECD 218/219: Sediment-Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment/Spiked Water
- OECD 233: Sediment-Water Chironomid Life-Cycle Toxicity Test Using Spiked Water or Spiked Sediment
- OECD 225: Sediment-water Lumbriculus Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment
- OECD 242: Potamopyrgus antipodarum Reproduction Test
- OECD 243: Lymnaea stagnalis Reproduction Test
- OECD 203: Fish, Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 215: Fish Juvenile Growth Study
- OECD 212: Fish, Short-term Toxicity Test on Embryo and Sac-fry Stages
- OECD 231: The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay
- OECD 236: Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test
- OECD 210: Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test
- OECD 229 Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay and OECD 230 21-day Fish Assay
- OECD 240 Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)
- OECD 248: Xenopus Eleutheroembryonic Thyroid Assay
- OPPTS 850.1500: Fish Life Cycle Toxicity Test
- OÈCD 234 Fish sexual development test
- Storage Stability Studies
- OPPTS 830.6302, OPPTS 830.6303,and OPPTS 830.6304: Physical State, Colour and Odor at 20 °C and at 101.3 kPa
- EU A.1: Melting temperature/range
- EU A.2: Boiling temperature
- EU A.3: Relative density (liquids and solids)
- EU A.4: Vapour pressure
- EU A.5: Surface tension
- EU A.9: Flashpoint
- EU A.10: Flammability (solids)
- EU A.12: Flammability (contact with water)
- EU A.13: Pyrophoric properties of solids and liquids
- EU A.16: Relative self-ignition temperature for solids
- EU A.17: Oxidising properties
- OECD 114: Viscosity of Liquids
- Environmental Fate
- Terrestrial Ecotoxicology
- Non-target arthropod testing with the parasitic wasp (Aphidius rhopalosiphi)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the ladybird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory bug (Orius laevigatus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the predatory mite (Typhlodromus pyri)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the rove beetle (Aleochara bilineata)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the carabid beetle (Poecilus cupreus)
- Non-target arthropod testing with the wolf spider (Pardosa spec.)
- OECD 213/214: Honey bees, Acute Oral and Acute Contact Toxicity Test
- OECD 245: Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.), Chronic Oral Toxicity Test (10-Day Feeding)
- OECD 237: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test, Single Exposure
- OECD 239: Honey Bee Larval Toxicity Test
- EPPO 170: Honey Bee Field Study – do plant protection products effect honey bee colonies?
- Oomen et al. 1992: Honey Bee Brood Feeding Study
- OECD 75: Honey Bee Brood Test under Semi-field Conditions in Tunnels
- OECD 246/247 Acute Oral and Contact Toxicity to the Bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L.
- Solitary Bee Acute Contact Toxicity Study in the Laboratory (Osmia sp.) Solitary Bee Acute Oral Toxicity Study in the Laboratory (Osmia sp.) (protocols for ringtests with solitary bees recommended by the non-Apis working group)
- SANTE/11956/2016 rev.9 Residue trials for MRL setting in honey
- OECD 208: Terrestrial Plant Test - Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test
- OECD 227: Terrestrial Plant Test - Vegetative Vigour Test
- OCSPP 850.4100: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth
- OCSPP 850.4150: Vegetative Vigor
- EPPO PP 1/207(2): Efficacy evaluation of plant protection products, Effects on succeeding crops
- Ecological Modelling
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- Aquatic Ecotoxicology
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- Dr. Melanie Lichtenberger
- Dr. Maria Meinerling
- Frauke Ewert
- Frank Ströhle
- Dr. Mercedes Dragovits
- Christine Rushby
- Feride Karabiyik
- Dr. Saúl Molina-Herrera
- Christiane Rutschmann-Fröhlich
- Thomas Deierling
- Jan Schostag
- Dr. Benoit Goussen
- Sabine Schwientek
- Dr. Patrick Riefer
- Dr. Anja Meister-Werner
- Martina Schmalhorst
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Supporting regulatory approval of plant protection products through efficient testing of aquatic plant species
28th January 2021
Blog by Hanna Armbruster, ibacon Group Leader, Aquatic Ecotoxicology
ibacon has considerable expertise in carrying out studies on higher aquatic plant species. We have an experienced team of study directors and technicians and our laboratories house the very latest, state-of-the-art equipment. We carry out analytical dose verification in water and sediment and our tests can be performed static, semi-static or in pulsed designs. Tailor-made designs are also welcome. High quality cultures for each plant species result in excellent plant material for testing.
We are proud to report high levels of customer satisfaction with our experienced team – not just for the advice they give, but also for the plant material and consistent results.
At ibacon we use three species of aquatic plants for different regulatory aspects: Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum spicatum and Glyceria maxima.
Lemna gibba, or Duckweed as it is more commonly known, is used for testing of herbicides and plant growth regulators or where a plant protection product shows herbicidal effects on terrestrial plant species.
ibacon has performed more than 600 GLP studies on Lemna gibba according to OECD 221. Pulse designs are also performed from time to time as well as recovery studies. Because Lemna gibba is a monocot species, testing of an additional dicot species such as Myriophyllum spicatum is also required for Auxin inhibitors or herbicides effecting dicot species, or when effects on dicot species in terrestrial plant species were observed.
We have performed tests with Myriophyllum spicatum for many years and also taken part in ring tests for the development of the guidelines. Testing is usually performed according to OECD 239 with plant rooting in sediment, and exposure to the chemical through the spiking of water or sediment in static, semi-static or pulsed-dose scenarios.
This test design is closer to reality as Myriophyllum grows with roots in the sediment, however, we can also carry out OECD 238 testing with floating plants without sediment in a sterile system. This is an advantage for some questions – such as the testing of substances easily degraded by microorganisms or with frequent water exchange.
Our culture of Myriophyllum is sterile which is very useful for growth suppression of algae and bacteria. It enables excellent plant growth and homogenous conditions among the different test groups and replicates.
Glyceria maxima is a test species suitable in situations where partitioning of the test substance to sediment is a concern and leads to exposure via root uptake and an activity on monocotyledonous species in terrestrial plant tests is shown. While the OECD guideline is still under development, two ring tests were performed in recent years with the contribution of ibacon. A third ring test will be conducted soon.
ibacon has vast experience with testing of Glyceria maxima and performed tests even before the ring test was initiated. We managed to grow the plants out of seeds and free of parasites and established a culture of rhizome propagated, healthy plants. Growth conditions are an important point and ibacon’s height-adjustable illumination guarantees the best light conditions for all plant heights.